Spatial Analysis of Economic Resilience in Urban Areas During the COVID-19 Pandemic (Case Study: Wonosari, Gunungkidul, Indoensia) Analisis Spasial Ketahanan Ekonomi di Wilayah Perkotaan selama Pandemi COVID-19 (Studi Kasus: Kecamatan Wonosari Kabupaten Gunungkidul Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jkn.85042

Ika Afianita Suherningtyas(1*), Agus Joko Pitoyo(2), Prima Widayani(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a decline in the national and international economies. This research aimed to determine the spatial analysis of economic resilience in urban areas during the COVID-19 pandemic, using Wonosari District in Gunungkidul, Indonesia, as an example.

The mixed-method design of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the weight of each factor of economic resilience, which included expert judgment (qualitative). Then, the geographic information system (GIS) was used as a tool to spatially characterize economic resilience using descriptive analysis.

AHP showed six factors of economic resilience: socioeconomic condition, community, infrastructure, institution, natural resources, and technology and communication. The most determining factor was socioeconomic condition (weight: 0.283, rank 1), while the least influencing factor was infrastructure condition (weight: 0.112, rank 6). Based on data distribution, Wonosari had medium economic resilience in eight villages (accounting for 57% of the total area), high resilience in four villages (29%), and low resilience in two villages (14%). Although Wonosari is generally economically resilient with variation charachteristic, collaborations between stakeholders, including the community, government, organizations, and academics, are needed to enhance this condition.

ABSTRAK

Pandemi COVID-19 mengakibatkan penurunan kondisi ekonomi nasional dan internasional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan analisis spasial terhadap ketahanan ekonomi wilayah perkotaan pada masa pandemi, khususnya di Kecamatan Wonosari, Gunungkidul, Indonesia.

Metode penelitian ini memanfaatkan pendekatan kuantitatif dan kualitatif pada Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) untuk menentukan bobot faktor ketahanan ekonomi, termasuk menggunakan pendapat para ahli (expert judgement). Selanjutnya, dilakukan analisis spasial dengan tools Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) untuk mendeskripsikan karakter spasial atau keruangan ketahanan ekonomi di lokasi penelitian.

Hasil AHP menunjukkan enam faktor ketahanan ekonomi, yaitu kondisi sosial ekonomi, masyarakat, infrastruktur, kelembagaan, sumber daya alam, serta teknologi dan komunikasi. Faktor terpenting (peringkat pertama) adalah sosial ekonomi dengan bobot 0,283, sedangkan faktor dengan pengaruh terkecil (peringkat terakhir) adalah kondisi infrastruktur dengan bobot 0,112. Sebaran klasifikasi menunjukkan bahwa Wonosari memiliki kelas ketahanan ekonomi sedang yang meliputi 57% dari total area (delapan desa), kelas tinggi seluas 29%, dan kelas rendah seluas 14%. Meskipun Wonosari secara umum memiliki ketahanan ekonomi yang bervariasi, namun tetap diperlukan kerjasama antar pemangku kepentingan, termasuk masyarakat, pemerintah, organisasi, dan akademisi, untuk meningkatkan kondisi ketahanan ekonomi saat ini


Keywords


Spatial Analysis; Economic Resilience; Pandemic COVID-19; Gunungkidul

Full Text:

PDF


References

i

Aditya, N.R. and Krisiandi (2021) Menaker: 29,12 Juta Penduduk Usia Kerja Terdampak Pandemi, Kompas.com. Available at: https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2021/03/15/16302951/menaker-2912-juta-penduduk-usia-kerja-terdampak-pandemi (Accessed: 13 March 2023).

Aldrich, D.P. and Meyer, M.A. (2015) ‘Social Capital and Community Resilience’, American Behavioral Scientist, 59(2), pp. 254–269. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764214550299.

Awad, J. and Jung, C. (2022) ‘Extracting the Planning Elements for Sustainable Urban Regeneration in Dubai with AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)’, Sustainable Cities and Society, 76, p. 103496. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SCS.2021.103496.

Badan Pusat Statistik (2021) ‘Kabupaten Gunungkidul dalam Angka 2021’, p. 492. Available at: https://gunungkidulkab.bps.go.id/publication/2021/02/26/acc2288db947eb9841c96c11/kabupaten-gunungkidul-dalam-angka-2021.html.

Badan Pusat Statistik (2022) ‘Pertumbuhan Ekonomi Indonesia Triwulan I-2022’, Www.Bps.Go.Id, (13), p. 12.

Berkes, F. and Ross, H. (2013) ‘Community Resilience: Toward an Integrated Approach’, Society and Natural Resources, 26(1), pp. 5–20. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2012.736605.

BNPB (2023) Kejadian Bencana Tahun 2014 - 2023. Available at: https://dibi.bnpb.go.id/ (Accessed: 10 March 2023).

Bowo, T.A., Inggris, J.S. and Belitung, U.B. (2023) ‘Peran LSM Dalam Penanggulangan Kekeringan dan Implikasinya Bagi Ketahanan Wilayah Di Kapanewon Nglipar Gunungkidul , Provinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta ( Studi Pada Yayasan Wahana Mandiri Indonesia ) Abdul Fatah Air dan Gunungkidul adalah harapan’, 29(1), pp. 108–120.

BPS (2020) Keadaan Angkatan Kerja Kabupaten Gunungkidul 2020. Yogyakarta: BPS. Available at: https://doi.org/10.29103/tj.v10i2.381.

BPS Kabupaten Gunungkidul (2022a) ‘Kecamatan Wonosari Dalam Angka Tahun 2022’, pp. 1–93. Available at: https://bondowosokab.bps.go.id/publication/download.html?nrbvfeve=MjJlMjVmZDgxMGU3MGJiODFiMWQzMzNm&xzmn=aHR0cHM6Ly9ib25kb3dvc29rYWIuYnBzLmdvLmlkL3B1YmxpY2F0aW9uLzIwMjIvMDkvMjYvMjJlMjVmZDgxMGU3MGJiODFiMWQzMzNmL2tlY2FtYXRhbi13b25vc2FyaS1kYWxhbS1hbmdrYS0yMDI.

BPS Kabupaten Gunungkidul (2022b) ‘Kecamatan Wonosari Dalam Angka Tahun 2022’, pp. 1–93. Available at: https://bondowosokab.bps.go.id/publication/download.html?nrbvfeve=MjJlMjVmZDgxMGU3MGJiODFiMWQzMzNm&xzmn=aHR0cHM6Ly9ib25kb3dvc29rYWIuYnBzLmdvLmlkL3B1YmxpY2F0aW9uLzIwMjIvMDkvMjYvMjJlMjVmZDgxMGU3MGJiODFiMWQzMzNmL2tlY2FtYXRhbi13b25vc2FyaS1kYWxhbS1hbmdrYS0yMDI.

Briguglio, L. et al. (2009) ‘Economic vulnerability and resilience: Concepts and measurements’, Oxford Development Studies, 37(3), pp. 229–247. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13600810903089893.

C, P. and Viorică, D. (2019) ‘Current Methodological Approaches in Economic Resilience Analysis. Empirical Findings in the EaP Countries’, in Resilience and the EU’s Eastern Neighbourhood Countries. Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 321–348. Available at: https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25606-7_11.

Cahyadi, A. et al. (2012) ‘Evaluasi Tata Ruang Pesisir Sadeng Gunungkidul: Perspektif Pengurangan Risiko Bencana’, in Seminar Nasional SCAN (Suistanable, Culture, Architecture, and Nature) Ke-3. Yogyakarta: Universitas Atma Jaya, pp. 1–8.

Campbell, A.M. (2020) ‘An increasing risk of family violence during the Covid-19 pandemic: Strengthening community collaborations to save lives’, Forensic Science International: Reports, 2(April), p. 100089. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsir.2020.100089.

Cardona, O.D. et al. (2010) ‘Disaster risk from a macroeconomic perspective: a metric for fiscal vulnerability evaluation.’, Disasters, 34(4), pp. 1064–1083. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2010.01183.x.

Chan, S.-L., Wey, W.-M. and Chang, P.-H. (2014) ‘Establising Disaster Resilience Indicator for Tan-sui River Basin in Taiwan’, Production, 1(115), pp. 387–418. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s.

Cutter, S.L. et al. (2008) ‘A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters’, Global Environmental Change, 18(4), pp. 598–606. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/J.GLOENVCHA.2008.07.013.

Cutter, S.L., Ash, K.D. and Emrich, C.T. (2016) ‘Urban–Rural Differences in Disaster Resilience’, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 106(6), pp. 1236–1252. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/24694452.2016.1194740.

Damanhuri, D.S. (2000) ‘Akar Problematik Ekonomi Politik Pertanian Dan Upaya Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Petani ’. [Yogyakarta] : Universitas Gadjah Mada . Available at: https://ugm.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0/eLvHCXMwjV1LSwMxEB6qInhTVHyTizdXspO43T2KtghS2EML6mWZ7iZ9hC6iXvz3zmQriKceE8JMmBkyecz3BcDgrU7-rQmNx5w8Ul57nzmbSuJvOFV53WQpkYCTX0szejMvYzvqwe_HhYsk8iXNViKcnbOM5l1XV0b6CKmjjO8yKBD2LaNjWddjIqlitvqTKob7sLve4x.

Desjardins, E., Barker, G. and Dieleman, C. (2016) ‘Promoting Resilience Author ( s ): Eric Desjardins , Gillian Barker , Zoë Lindo , Catherine Dieleman and Antoine C . Dussault Source : The Quarterly Review of Biology , Vol . 90 , No . 2 ( June 2015 ), pp . 147-165 Published by : The University of Chicago’, 90(2), pp. 147–165.

Dinas Kesehatan DIY (2022) Peta Sebaran Kasus COVID-19 di D.I. Yogyakarta, corona.jogjaprov.go.id.

Dumbuya, B. and Nirupama, N. (2017) ‘Disasters and long-term economic sustainability: a perspective on Sierra Leone’, International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, 8(1), pp. 58–76. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJDRBE-04-2016-0012.

Ernstson, H. et al. (2010) ‘Urban transitions: On urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems’, Ambio, 39(8), pp. 531–545. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-010-0081-9.

Estoque, R.C. and Murayama, Y. (2014) ‘Social–ecological status index: A preliminary study of its structural composition and application’, Ecological Indicators, 43, pp. 183–194. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECOLIND.2014.02.031.

Giyarsih, S.R. (1999) ‘Mobilitas Penduduk Daerah Pinggiran Kota di Dusun Kadipiro dan Dusun Sidorejo Desa Ngestiharjo Kecamatan Kasihan Kabupaten Bantul’, Majalah Geografi Indonesia, pp. 141–155.

Giyasih, S.R. (2017) ‘Regional management of areas with indications of urban sprawl in the surrounding areas of universitas muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia’, Indonesian Journal of Geography, 49(1), pp. 35–41. Available at: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.2323.

Golledge, R.G. (2009) ‘The SAGE Handbook of Spatial Analysis’. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4135/9780857020130.

Goodchild, M.F. (2009) ‘Geographic information systems and science: Today and tomorrow’, Annals of GIS, 15(1), pp. 3–9. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/19475680903250715.

Graziano, P. (2013) ‘Vulnerability and resilience of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of italian provinces’, Regional studies association european conference, pp. 1–28.

Greenwalt, J., Raasakka, N. and Alverson, K. (2018) Building urban resilience to address urbanization and climate change, Resilience: The Science of Adaptation to Climate Change. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811891-7.00012-8.

Hadiwardoyo, W. (2020) ‘Kerugian Ekonomi Nasional Akibat Pandemi Covid-19’, Baskara: Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 2(2), pp. 83–92. Available at: https://doi.org/10.24853/baskara.2.2.83-92.

Hartanto, D. (2022) ‘Peran UPT-BP2MI DIY Dalam Pemberdayaan Pekerja Migran Indonesia Purna Dan Implikasinya Terhadap Ketahanan Ekonomi Keluarga’, Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, 28(1), p. 38. Available at: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkn.73622.

Hossain, M.K. and Meng, Q. (2020) ‘A thematic mapping method to assess and analyze potential urban hazards and risks caused by flooding’, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 79. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2019.101417.

Huang, S. et al. (2022) ‘Understanding Human Activities in Response to Typhoon Hato from Multi-Source Geospatial Big Data: A Case Study in Guangdong, China’, Remote Sensing, 14(5). Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14051269.

Kementrian Kesehatan, R.I. (2020) KMK No. HK.01.07-MENKES-382-2020 tentang Protokol Kesehatan Bagi Masyarakat di Tempat dan Fasilitas Umum Dalam Rangka Pencegahan COVID-19. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan.

Kemhan RI (2015) Buku Putih Pertahanan Indonesia 2015.

Kiswanto, E. (2005) ‘Negara Kesejahteraan (Welfare State): Mengembalikan Peran Negara Dalam Pembangunan Kesejahteraan Sosial di Indonesia ’. [Yogyakarta] : Universitas Gadjah Mada . Available at: https://ugm.summon.serialssolutions.com/2.0.0/link/0/eLvHCXMwjV1LSwMxEB6sInhTVHyTgwdFVtbNprsteLIWi1QKFnxclmyS3W7tRmjr_3dmWPBx6jGZyZDM5DEJM18AZHQdBv_2BKkK3I1VrqVOZGQMQz8ZdFVMJPVNToZ_G8nhu3wdx8OfHLEqYLyksibhaJwpq7eJrmT4CIqjHNhbhZerFrRkyFFdvYBOirL-dVL0t2Gzcf.

Ling, T.Y. (2021) ‘Investigating the malleable socioeconomic resilience pathway to urban cohesion: a case of Taipei metropolitan area’, Environment, Development and Sustainability [Preprint], (0123456789). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01197-9.

Martin, R. (2012) ‘Regional economic resilience, hysteresis and recessionary shocks’, Journal of Economic Geography, 12(1), pp. 1–32. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbr019.

Martinelli, D., Cimellaro, G.P. and Renschler, C.S. (2014) ‘Quantification of the economic resilience from the community level to the individual business level: The bay area case study’, Structures Congress 2014 - Proceedings of the 2014 Structures Congress, (January 2022), pp. 1518–1529. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413357.133.

Martono, N. (2010) Statistik Sosial: Teori dan Aplikasi Program SPSS. Yogyakarta: Gava Media.

McCarty, H.H. and Hartshorne (1967) ‘Locational Analysis in Economic Geography’, in R.H. Smith, E.J. Taaffe, and L.J. King (eds) Readings in Economic Geography. Chicago: Rand McNally and Company, pp. 13–23.

Modica, M., Reggiani, A. and Nijkamp, P. (2019) ‘Vulnerability, resilience and exposure: Methodological aspects’, Advances in Spatial Science. Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), L’Aquila, Italy: Springer International Publishing, pp. 295–324. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16237-5_12.

Morkūnas, M., Volkov, A. and Pazienza, P. (2018) ‘How resistant is the agricultural sector? Economic resilience exploited’, Economics and Sociology, 11(3), pp. 321–332. Available at: https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2018/11-3/19.

Mucherera, B. and Spiegel, S. (2021) ‘Forced displacement: critical lessons in the protracted aftermath of a flood disaster’, GeoJournal [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-021-10471-w.

Musianto, L.S. (2002) ‘Perbedaan Pendekatan Kuantitatif Dengan Pendekatan Kualitatif Dalam Metode Penelitian’, Jurnal Manajemen dan Wirausaha, 4(2), pp. 123–136. Available at: https://doi.org/10.9744/jmk.4.2.pp.123-136.

Pagsuyoin, S. et al. (2019) ‘Spatio-temporal drought risk analysis using GIS-based input output modeling’, Advances in Spatial Science. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Massachusetts-Lowell, Lowell, MA, United States: Springer International Publishing, pp. 375–397. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16237-5_15.

Pan, Q. and Zhai, D. (2015) ‘Develop A GIS Based Risk Model to Evaluate the Economic Resilience of Houston Neighborhoods for the Next Oil Bust’, GeoJournal Library, 113, pp. 223–233. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14145-9_18.

Peling, M. (2012) ‘Resilience and transformation’, in Climate Change and the Crisis of Capitalism: A Chance to Reclaim, Self, Society and Nature. King’s College London, United Kingdom: Taylor and Francis, pp. 51–65. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203146118-9.

Permatasari, A., Suherningtyas, I.A. and et all (2022) ‘Analysis of Vulnerability to Transmission of the Covid-19 based on Building Function at Padukuhan Mancasan Kleben, Pandowoharjo, Sleman, Yogyakarta’, Forum Geografi, 35(2).

Potter, et. al. (2012) Development Geography. London: SAGE.

RI (2007) Undang-Udang Penanggulangan Bencana. Jakarta: RI.

Rodoni, A. (2022) ‘Determinan Kinerja Sub Sektor Perikanan Guna Mendukung Ketahanan Ekonomi Di Provinsi Kepulauan Riau Dewi Arizona menyatakan bahwa kontribusi dari sektor kelautan mampu’, 28(2), pp. 222–240.

Rose, A. (2014) Economic resilience and the sustainability of cities in the face of climate change: An ecological economics framework, Elgar Companion to Sustainable Cities: Strategies, Methods and Outlook. Available at: https://doi.org/10.4337/9780857939999.00023.

Rumarey, W. et al. (2022) ‘Peran Dinas Perikanan Dalam Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Nelayan Dan Implikasinya Terhadap Ketahanan Ekonomi Keluarga Nelayan (Studi Pada Kampung Nelayan Di Kecamatan Bula, Kabupaten Seram Bagian Timur, Provinsi Maluku)’, Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, 28(1), p. 51. Available at: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkn.72773.

Ruslanjari, D. et al. (2020) ‘Kondisi Kerentanan dan Ketahanan Masyarakat Terhadap Bencana Tanah Longsor di Desa Pagerharjo , Kecamatan Samigaluh , Kabupaten Berdasarkan Data dan Informasi Bencana Nglinggo Barat dan Nglinggo Timur juga wisata berupa Wisata Edukasi Kehidupan Bukit Ngis’, 26(1), pp. 23–39.

Rutynskyi, M. and Kushniruk, H. (2020) ‘The impact of quarantine due to COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry in Lviv (Ukraine)’, Problems and Perspectives in Management [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.21511/ppm.18(2).2020.17.

Saaty, T.. (1977) ‘A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structures’, Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 15(3), pp. 234– 281.

Saaty, T. and Vargas, L. (2012) Models, methods, concepts & applications of the analytic hierarchy process, … -Driven Demand and Operations Management Models. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3597-6.

Samudro, E.G. and Madjid, M.A. (2020) ‘Pemerintah Indonesia Menghadapi Bencana Nasional Covid -19 Yang Mengancam Ketahanan Nasional’, Jurnal Ketahanan Nasional, 26(2), p. 132. Available at: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkn.56318.

Schoch-Spana, M., Ravi, S.J. and Martin, E.K. (2022) ‘Modeling epidemic recovery: An expert elicitation on issues and approaches’, Social Science and Medicine, 292. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114554.

Sugiyono (2010) Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Sugiyono, P.D. (2016) Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif,dan R&D, Alfabeta, cv.

Suherningtyas, I.A. et al. (2021) ‘Assisting smart disaster management for smart city program, case study: Pringgokusuman village, Yogyakarta’, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 683(1), p. 012068. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/683/1/012068.

Suherningtyas, I.A., Pitoyo, A.J. and ... (2021) ‘Kapasitas Ketahanan Masyarakat Dalam Menghadapi Bencana Pandemi Covid-19 Di Wilayah Perkotaan (Studi Kasus: Kampung Krasak RT 16, RW 04 …’, Jurnal Ketahanan …, 27(1), pp. 16–38. Available at: https://journal.ugm.ac.id/jkn/article/view/62013.

Suherningtyas, I.A., Pitoyo, A.J. and Widayani, P. (2023) ‘Economic Resilience to Disasters in 1999–2022: A Bibliometric Literature Review with Future Research Direction Amid the Global COVID-19 Pandemic’, Geomedia Majalah Ilmiah dan Informasi Kegeografian, 21(1), pp. 60–72.

Unsworth, R.K.F. et al. (2015) ‘A framework for the resilience of seagrass ecosystems’, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 100(1), pp. 34–46. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.08.016.

Velavan, T.P. and Meyer, C.G. (2020) ‘The COVID-19 epidemic’, Tropical Medicine and International Health [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13383.

WHO (2020) ‘Responding to community spread of COVID-19’, Interim Guidance 7 March [Preprint].

Yunus, H.S. (2014) Klasifikasi Kota. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Yunus, H.S. (2016) Metodologi Penelitian Wilayah Kontemporer. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkn.85042

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 530 | views : 879

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2023 Ika Afianita Suherningtyas, Agus Joko Pitoyo, Prima Widayani

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


web
analytics View My Stats